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In Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq, between fifty and one hundred residential establishments dedicated to agricultural production and animal husbandry, as well as pleasure, were built in the countryside away from urban centers in the seventh and eighth centuries.Although situated in remote areas, these were permanent settlements that were strategically located to take advantage of whatever water sources existed as well as to play an intermediary role between the nomadic tribes of the desert and the market centers where agricultural and animal products were traded.
Ezek 4048) and a revival of the image of Yahweh as king and commander, which may be connected with sixth-century prophecy and especially Isa 52:712.In studying the biblical text this means not only the results of archaeological excavations but equally and perhaps even more the constantly growing body of non-biblical texts which provide our best access to the various aspects of the culture(s) in which biblical texts were written, such as social conventions and structures, ideologies, intellectual trends, and history.Geography too is of special relevance to itineraries, though it needs to be understood to include mental maps which endow physical space with meaning and value.There are useful indexes of authors, biblical references, geographical names and other texts referred to, and several maps and tables clarify the argument.As indicated above, this is a valuable fresh study of the subject.The first Islamic gardens emerged in this relationship between architecture, water resources, and the landscape.
Individual members of the Umayyad family generally built their residences in isolated locations that today seem like harsh, arid environments.
Roskop's sub-division separates raw itineraries, which are administrative documents, from Egyptian and Assyrian royal annals which use (or perhaps sometimes imitate) itineraries as part of display inscriptions that serve to magnify the king's achievements and establish his rule.
She is able to add some new examples, especially one from Mari and a Middle Assyrian example from Tall Šēḥ Hamad on the lower Habur, both administrative texts, and to use better editions of some others.
The Amman Citadel contains a unique palatine complex, built intramuros and of enormous size, which survives from the Umayyad era.
Its baths were located next to the grand entry vestibule that led from the mosque and a large open plaza into the administrative zone of the palace.
It is an unusual experience, but in this case a very rewarding one, to read a book (based on a Hebrew Union College dissertation) that refers frequently to one's own doctoral dissertation (1975) and published work, and studies some of the same texts and issues that were the subject of it. The common topic comprises the extensive wilderness itinerary in Num 33:149 and the shorter passages in Exodus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua which resemble parts of it, viewed in the light of similar texts from the ancient Near East (in my case with further examples from the Greek and Roman worlds).